By Ute Resch-Genger, Markus Grabolle, Roland Nitschke, Thomas Nann (auth.), Alexander P. Demchenko (eds.)

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“This e-book is a entire review of the differing kinds of nanoscale probes which were and are at the moment being constructed for sensing of analytes. The well timed reference part permits the reader to find key references to the first literature for growth of the cloth lined. … a priceless source that covers the factitious, photo-physical, and theoretical points of this different box of research.” (Jeffrey T. Petty, magazine of the yank Chemical Society, Vol. 133, 2011)

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J Phys Chem B 101:9463–9475 33. Yu WW, Qu L, Guo W, Peng X (2003) Experimental determination of the extinction coefficient of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS nanocrystals. Chem Mater 15:2854–2860 34. Chan WC, Nie S (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016–2018 35. Mitchell GP, Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL (1999) Programmed assembly of DNA functionalized quantum dots. J Am Chem Soc 121:8122–8123 36. Dubertret B, Skourides P, Norris DJ, Noireaux V, Brivanlou AH, Libchaber A (2002) In vivo imaging of quantum dots encapsulated in phospholipid micelles.

Nanocrystals and Nanoparticles Versus Molecular Fluorescent Labels 21 The work on the toxicity of nanoparticular reporters is still in its infancy. The clear evaluation of cytotoxicity will require verified data using at least two or more independent test systems, standardization in the experimental set-up and exposure conditions in order to be reliable. In addition, the involvement of toxicologists in the systematic assessment of QD toxicity would be beneficial. 3 Application of Molecular and Nanoparticulate Fluorophores The fast, sensitive, reliable, and reproducible detection of (bio)molecules including quantification as well as biomolecule localization, the measurement of their interplay with one another or with other species, and the assessment of biomolecule function in bioassays as well as in vitro and in vivo plays an ever increasing role in the life sciences.

For both organic dyes and QDs, bioconjugation often leads to a decrease in fluorescence quantum yield and thus typically also in emission lifetime. Parameters that can affect label fluorescence are the chemical nature and the length of the spacer and, at least for organic dyes, the type of neighboring biomolecules like oligonucleotides or amino acids in the bioconjugated form. Generally, the knowledge of microenvironment effects greatly simplifies label choice. This is an advantage of organic dyes as the spectroscopic properties of many 26 U.

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