By Helga Stan-Lotter (auth.), Prof. Dr. Helga Stan-Lotter, Dr. Sergiu Fendrihan (eds.)

Once thought of unheard of rarities, extremophiles became beautiful items for simple and utilized learn starting from nanotechnology to biodiversity to the origins of existence or even to the quest for extraterrestrial lifestyles. a number of novel facets of extremophiles are lined during this booklet; the focal point is first of all on strange and no more explored ecosystems similar to marine hypersaline deeps, severe chilly, wilderness sands, and man-made fresh rooms for spacecraft meeting. Secondly, the more and more complicated box of purposes from extremophile examine is handled and examples resembling novel psychrophilic enzymes, compounds from halophiles, and detection thoughts for capability extraterrestrial lifestyles varieties are presented.

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Geothermal areas are in North America (Yellowstone National Park), New Zealand, Japan, Italy, the Kamchatka Peninsula, and Iceland. Geothermal areas in different parts of the world vary greatly in geology and chemistry, but belong mainly to two categories: Firstly, the solfataric type characterized by acidic soils, sulfur, mud pots, and fumaroles, and secondly the neutral–alkaline type, characterized by freshwater hot springs and geysers, which are neutral to alkaline in pH (Kristjansson and Hreggvidsson 1995).

2005), thus potentially leading to the selection of new very peculiar extremophiles. In the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, one of the most oligotrophic marine water bodies, active mud volcanism associated with diverse ecosystems has recently been detected on the Nile Deep Sea Fan (Dupre et al. 2007; Omoregie et al. 2008). In 2000 the bathymetry surveys of this area allowed the discovery of the Chefren mud volcano of the Menes Caldera (Mascle et al. 2006). The Menes Caldera is a circular depression with a diameter of 8 km that is approximately 50–100 m deep, at a water depth of about 3000 m in the western area of the Nile Deep Sea Fan.

As there is no outflow, the water is static and becomes saturated by gases from the geothermal steam (B€odvarsson 1961; Kristjansson and Hreggvidsson 1995; Palmason 2005). Low-temperature areas are located at the flank of the volcanically active zones. These are defined by temperature lower than 150 C at 1000 m depth. They are 41 Microbial speciation in the geothermal ecosystem heated by deep lava flows or by dead magma chambers. Groundwater percolating into these hot areas is heated and returns up to the surface containing dissolved minerals such as silica and some dissolved gases, mainly carbon dioxide.

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