By H. Romijn

An authoritative exam of ways small enterprises in constructing nations gather technological potential - the information and talents required to function know-how successfully and to conform it to neighborhood stipulations. It fills a niche within the proven literature on technological potential, which has ignored the small-scale quarter despite the $64000 function it performs in employment iteration. the writer develops a strategy for a quantitative overview of the training technique, utilizing case fabric from the small-scale capital items region in Pakistan's Punjab Province.

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For example, the textile firms in Kenya and the Ivory Coast employed on average around 1000 people and in both countries constituted the largescale, leading segment of the textile industry. Small firms are adequately represented in only a few studies. , 1995; Wignaraja and Ikiara, forthcoming). Both of these focus on Africa. Aside from them, we have only the Jamaican case-study of a welding electrodes 34 Technological Capability in Small Firms manufacturer (Girvan and Marcelle, 1990), one of 12 machine-tool manufacturers in Hong Kong (Fransman, 1982) and another of technology transfer to a handful of small-scale industries in Tanzania (Alange, 1987) which arguably is not part of the mainstream capability literature because it was aimed specifically at assessing the impact of Swedish 'senior sister companies'.

1985). J6 Technological learning The development of these various capabilities was found to be a gradual and cumulative process, and it is possible to distinguish certain stages in it. It tends to start with relatively simple activities designed to overcome problems associated with the choice, installation and efficient operation of a given technology, which means that basic assimilation, production and very minor adaptation capabilities tend to develop first. Building on the experience generated by solving assimilation problems, a firm can move on to more demanding and original work, from imitation and adaptation to genuine improvement and innovation.

The data in the employment column of the table bring out this point most forcefully. In the Indian case-studies, for example, average employment per firm was more than 4000 in all sectors covered. In fact, most firms were substantially larger and several employed more than 10000 workers. A similar picture is given by the studies conducted in South Korea and Latin American countries. The Brazilian USIMINAS steel plant, for example, employed approximately 11500 workers, and the two Korean textile companies employed 2500 and 3500 workers, respectively.

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